Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains ,
roots, beans , nuts , seeds , or bones . Flours are used to make many different foods .
Types of flour
All-purpose flour should be a staple in your kitchen. Milled from a mixture of soft and hard wheat varieties, it has a moderate protein content of about 10 to 12 percent. As the most versatile flour, it’s capable of creating flaky pie crusts, chewy cookies, and fluffy pancakes. If a recipe calls for “flour,” it most likely means all-purpose flour.
Best Used For: Cookies, muffins, bread, pie crusts, pancakes, biscuits, pizza dough, and pasta.
Cake flour has the lowest protein content of all flours at 5 to 8 percent. Because of this, it has less gluten, which leads to softer baked goods perfect for cakes, muffins, and biscuits. Cake flour also absorbs more liquid and sugar than all-purpose flour, which guarantees a super moist cake.
Best Used For: Sponge cakes, pound cakes, layer cakes, angel food cakes, muffins, and biscuits.
Pastry flour falls in between all-purpose flour and cake flour. It strikes the perfect balance between flakiness and tenderness, making it the go-to choice for pie crusts, tarts, and cookies. You can even make your own at home by mixing 1 1/3 cups of all-purpose flour with 2/3 cup cake flour.
Best Used For: Pie crusts, cookies, muffins, cakes, pancakes, biscuits, and bread sticks.
Bread flour is the strongest of all flours with a high protein content at 12 to 14 percent. This comes in handy when baking yeasted breads because of the strong gluten content required to make the bread rise properly. Bread flour makes for a better volume and a chewier crumb with your bakes.
Best Used For: Artisan breads, yeast breads, bagels, pretzels, and pizza dough
The secret ingredients of self-rising flour are the baking powder and salt added during the milling process. It’s generally made from soft wheat with a protein content around 8 to 9 percent. You can make your own at home by mixing 1 cup pastry flour with 1 ½ teaspoon baking powder and ¼ teaspoon salt. Be careful not to substitute self rising flour for other flours while baking. The added ingredients can throw off the rest of the measurements in your recipe.
Best Used For: Pancakes, biscuits, and scones.
Whole Wheat Flour
Whole wheat flour tends to have a high protein content around 13 to 14 percent, but the presence of the germ and bran affect the flour’s gluten-forming ability. Whole wheat flour usually leads to super sticky dough and denser baked goods. The presence of wheat germ also makes whole wheat flour far more perishable than white flour. While white flour can sit in your pantry in an airtight canister for up to eight months, whole wheat flour will only stay at its best for up to three months.
Best Used For: Cookies, bread, pancakes, pizza dough, and pasta.
White Whole Wheat Flour
White whole wheat flour is made up of the same components as whole wheat flour, but from a paler variety of wheat called hard white wheat. It has the same protein content as whole wheat flour at 13 to 14 percent, but it tastes slightly sweeter because of its lower tannin content. Whole wheat flour and white whole wheat flour actually have the same health benefits, so if you prefer the taste and texture of white bread, but want the nutritional value from whole wheat, then this is the flour for you.
Best Used For: Bread, muffins, and cookies.
Gluten-free flour can be made from all sorts of ingredient bases, such as rice, corn, potato, tapioca, buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum, or nuts. Xanthan gum can sometimes be added to gluten-free flour to help stimulate the chewiness associated with gluten. Gluten-free flour can’t always be substituted 1:1 for white flour, so be sure to check your specific recipe if you’re thinking about swapping the two.
Best Used For: Cakes, cookies, pancakes, bread, and muffins.
Almond flour is made by blanching almonds in boiling water to remove the skins, then grinding and sifting them into a fine flour. This gluten-free favorite is low in carbs and high in healthy fats and fiber. To replace wheat flour with almond flour, start by replacing the flours 1:1 and then add more of a rising agent (like baking powder or baking soda) to accommodate the heavier weight of the almond flour.
Best Used For: Cookies, muffins, pancakes, biscuits, and bread.
00 flour is made from the hardest type of wheat with a protein content of 11 to 12 percent. The “00” ref
Flour made from high-protein wheat varieties (which have 10 to 14 percent protein content) is called “hard wheat.” Flour made from low-protein wheat varieties (which have 5 to 10 percent protein content) is called “soft wheat.”